Ingrid Kraus

Ingrid Kraus is the daughter of Frederick and Anny Kraus, who were leading Jewish activists during the Movement in Birmingham in the 1960s, after escaping from Nazi-occupied Europe in 1940. Ingrid describes her parents’ participation in interracial meetings and activities in the city, as well as her father’s participation in the pro-integration Concerned White Citizens voting-rights march in Selma on Saturday, March 6, 1965, the day before Bloody Sunday. She also recalls her own experiences at Shades Valley High School, where she was accused, in an article in a local newspaper, of being part of a “communist cell” because she openly supported integration and racial equality.